DashboardInstructions for Authors
Instructions for Authors
Acta Palaeontologica Polonica accepts papers of moderate length. Longer manuscripts should be directed to the monographic series PALAEONTOLOGIA POLONICA.

Once you have prepared your manuscript according to the instructions below, please visit the online submission system. You will be treated as a corresponding author. Please prepare the following documents before clicking on the 'register' button:
  • cover letter
  • text file of your manuscript (Word format document),
  • figures and tables (as separate files)
  • if applicable, you may also include a document with Supplementary Online Material.
By using this service you will guarantee fast and safe submission of your manuscript, and speed the assessment process. If you have any questions regarding the submission you can contact the APP Technical Editor at tech_editor@twarda.pan.pl or click Feedback sign at the bottom of the page.

Contents of this document:
  1. General submission requirements
  2. Cover letter
  3. Organisation of the manuscript
  4. Tables and figures
  5. Supplementary Online Material
  6. Review process
  7. Acceptance for publication
  8. Proofs
  9. Reprints
  10. Copyright policy

1. General submission requirements

Articles consist of a title, abstract, keywords, authors’ mail and e-mail addresses, ORCID digital identifier number, introduction, main text, conclusions, acknowledgements, and references.
Brief reports (2000-3000 words, ca. 12 double-spaced pages including illustrations). Brief reports consist of a title, bold first paragraph of the introduction that provides the rationale for the work and summarises the main results, main text, acknowledgements, and references, authors’ mail and e-mail addresses.
Comments, Discussions (1000-1500 words, ca. 6 double-spaced pages), Paper/Book reviews, Prefaces (500-1500 words, ca. 3 double-spaced pages).
For more information on the organisation of these types of submissions, please see examples in recent APP issues.

Editors' choice. This section is envisaged as a selection of papers of wide topical interest significantly increasing the knowledge of the fossil record and/or evolutionary processes . It will typically contain 2-4 papers (c. 15% of the volume) per issue which will be fast-tracked after acceptance for the speediest possible publication.

All submissions are subject of screening against plagiarism. For details see http://www.crossref.org/crosscheck/index.html

Financial information. There are no charges for submission of an article. There are no obligatory page charges for papers up to 10 printed pages (approximately 30 double-spaced manuscript pages, 12 points Times New Roman font; assuming no illustrations), although any financial support for publication is welcome. For longer papers, a page charge of EUR 22 (VAT included) will be requested for each page over the 10 free pages. It is the policy of APP for authors to pay the full cost for reproduction of colour artwork at a rate of EUR 44 (VAT included) per figure (up to full page size). Authors may opt to publish colour figures online and black and white in print free of charge. Please note, however, that the grayscale version cannot impair understanding of the figures in the print version of our journal.
We are inclined to provide exceptions for authors of papers of extreme scientific value if they are lacking financial support. Appeal for a cost reduction may be made to the Editor in Chief.

Joint Data Archiving Policy. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica requires, as a condition for publication, that all of the data underlying or supporting the results in the paper should either be made available as Supplementary Online Material (see section 5), or be archived in an appropriate public archive, such as Dryad (http://www.datadryad.org/), MorphoBank (www.morphobank.org) or GenBank (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/genbank/). Data are important products of the scientific enterprise, and they should be preserved and usable for decades in the future. Authors may elect to have the data publicly available at time of online publication, or, if the technology of the archive allows, may opt to embargo access to the data for a period up to a year after publication. Exceptions may be granted at the discretion of the editor, especially for sensitive information such as human subject data or the location of endangered species.

Editorial announcement. Following the recommendation of the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology we decided that until the human rights situation in Myanmar is resolved, we will not publish papers on Burmese amber collected from 2017 onwards. Authors who wish to publish on Burmese amber specimens are expected to supply the APP editors with adequate proof to satisfy any and all editorial concerns regarding the provenance of the specimens, in the form of certification or other demonstrable evidence, that they were acquired before the date both legally and ethically. Any manuscript submitted that fails to meet these criteria will, at the discretion of the editors, not receive further consideration by APP. This decision is effective from April 23rd, 2020. Earlier submissions are proceeded on regular basis.

2. Cover letter

The cover letter should be no longer than one side of A4 (max words count 300), and it should provide the background for the problem or question your research answers. The focus of the first paragraph is to explain why your research was needed and clearly state the question your research answers.

The corresponding author must give written assurance that neither the submitted material nor portions thereof have been published previously or are under consideration for publication elsewhere. Any closely related material currently in press should be submitted with the manuscript.

It is assumed that the corresponding author represents all co-authors in certifying that all listed authors participated meaningfully in the study and that they have seen and approved the final manuscript.

3. Organisation of the manuscript

General information
The journal publishes in English. Authors are asked to use either British or American spelling consistently throughout. Authors whose first language is not English are urged to seek linguistic help from native English-speakers before submitting the manuscript. For the general usage of scientific English, please consult Scientific Style and Format: the CBE Manual for Authors, Editors, and Publishers (6th Edition), Cambridge University Press.
APP uses the iThenticate software to detect instances of overlapping and similar text in submitted manuscripts.
  • Double-space the entire manuscript, including abstract, text, references, tables, figure captions, and appendices.
  • Number all pages, beginning with the title page.
  • Use a standard font (Times New Roman), 12 points only.
  • Do not justify or break words at the right margin.
  • Figures and tables should normally be cited in consecutive order in the text.
  • In general, use no more than three levels of heading.
  • Capitalise references to illustrative material within the text (e.g., Fig. 18K; Table 2), but put in lower case those from other publications (e.g., Kowalski 1890: 26-27, fig. 29, pl. 2: 2, 3, pl. 3: 6; Müller 2001: pls. 1-5).
  • Author names and dates are required in the manuscript text only for taxa that are formally treated in the Systematic paleontology section. For these taxa, the authorities and dates should be included in the manuscript text after the first usage within each major section, and citations of the relevant papers must be included in the bibliography.
  • For new taxa (e.g., new species and genera) the abbreviations "sp. nov." and "gen. nov." should be used throughout the manuscript text.
  • Spell out generic names at the beginning of sentences and when used with "sp." Generic and subgeneric names may be abbreviated after being given in full within a major heading and if there is no chance of confusion with other names. Generic names may be abbreviated, when used in the combination of Agenus cf. A. species. Do not abbreviate specific and subspecific names.
  • Formally proposed and accepted time and lithostratigraphical designations (e.g., Middle Ordovician, Late Cretaceous) are capitalised, whereas informal designations (e.g., late Paleozoic, middle Pliocene) are not.
  • Use past tense for published works that are cited in the text (e.g., "Kowalski (1900) noted that...")
  • Do not add a space between a question mark and a generic name (e.g., Homo?). Question marks should follow the name in doubt (e.g., Homo? sapiens - questions the generic assignment, Homo sapiens? - questions the species assignment, and ?Homo sapiens - questions the entire identification).
  • When listing entries in a sentence, use the lower case Roman numbering: (i)...; (ii)...; (iii)....
  • The submission system will generate a pdf with figures and tables. Lines will be numbered automatically.
Numbers and measurements:
  • Spell out whole numbers zero through nine, except when associated with an abbreviated unit of measurement (e.g., 5 mm); use Arabic numerals for numbers 10 and greater. All numbers beginning a sentence are spelled out.
  • Numerical ranges can be given as "size is 5-8 mm".
  • Provide all measurements in metric units.
Titles should be in capital and lowercase letters. A title should be informative, but also as brief as possible. Do not use terms or names that may not be known to most readers, for instance those introduced in the paper for the first time. Avoid abbreviated words, names of high systematic rank or stratigraphic units given in parentheses, and authorities and dates.

Instead of the title: "Occidensbaatar hutchisoni gen. et sp. nov. (Multituberculata, Allotheria, Mammalia) from the Upper Cretaceous Lance Formation at Bug Creek, Wyoming, with some remarks on its bearing on the taxonomy and evolution of Multituberculata as a whole", write: "A new Late Cretaceous multituberculate mammal from Wyoming and its evolutionary implications".

Provide a structured abstract of min 100, max 300 words summarizing methods, results, and conclusions of the study in terms accessible to the general reader. All newly described taxa must be given by name in the abstract. Except in unusual circumstances, references should not be cited in the abstract.

Key words
Authors have to choose topics from the list provided in the submission form. Additionally they may suggest 3 to 8 key words identifying the nature of the subject matter. Please include stratigraphic and geographic information, where applicable. Use Latin names for higher taxonomic units.

The introduction should be concise and intelligible to a professional palaeontologist or geologist, and preferably to an educated lay reader. Provide the minimum background information that will orient the general reader, and do not engage in a literature review.
Institutional abbreviations.—Provide institutional abbreviations used in the text in alphabetic order: abbreviation, name of the institution, town, country.
Other abbreviations.—Provide an explanation of any other abbreviations used frequently in the text in alphabetic order.
Nomenclatural acts.—Starting from APP issue 64(1) the registration in ZooBank (http://zoobank.org/) of nomenclatural acts published in APP is mandatory prior to online publication. Please register your new taxa in due time and provide Zoobank number in Systematic palaeontology section.

Material and methods
In accordance with the recommendations of the International Codes of Zoological and Botanical Nomenclature (ICZN, ICBN), all illustrated and described fossils should be deposited in an appropriate public institution. Collection numbers must be quoted, preceded by an institutional abbreviation.

Results/ Systematic palaeontology
Present your results in a logical sequence in the text, tables, and illustrations. Do not repeat in the text all the data in the tables or illustrations; emphasise or summarise only important observations. For papers dealing with taxonomy, authors and editors are, by general agreement, obliged to accept the rules governing biological nomenclature, as laid down in the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature, the International Code of Nomenclature of Bacteria, and the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature. Authors should ensure that the diagnosis distinguishes the taxon in question from all morphologically similar taxa. Use differential diagnoses for new taxa, including comparisons with all other closely related species or genera. Alternatively, a short diagnosis containing only apomorphies of the new taxon, followed by a "Differential diagnosis", is also acceptable. The number of taxon authors should be kept within reasonable limits, preferably not exceeding three.

Organisation of sections in formal taxon descriptions:
  • Genus: Etymology (for new gen.), Type species (including authority, locality, and age), Species included (for new gen.), Diagnosis (for new gen.), Remarks (optional), Stratigraphic and geographic range (for new gen.).
  • New species: Species name, Figures, Etymology, Type material (Holotype, Paratypes), Type locality, Type horizon, Material, Diagnosis, Description (this section may split into separate headings for different anatomical parts, or ontogenetic stages if desired), Remarks, Stratigraphic and geographic range.
  • Previously described species: Species name, Figures, Synonymy, Material (required), Description, Remarks, Stratigraphic and geographic range (obligatory, unless in open nomenclature).
    Synonymy (example):
    1956 Martellia ichangensis sp. nov.; Wang 1956: 11, pl. 2: 1-5.
    1974 Martellia ichangensis Wang, 1956; Xu et al. 1974: 148, pl. 65: 5-7.
    1977 Martellia ichangensis Wang, 1956; Zeng 1977: 47, pl. 15: 7, 8.
    1977 Martellia orbicularis sp. nov.; Zeng 1977: 47, pl. 15: 10-12.
    1978 Martellia ichangensis Wang, 1956; Xu et al. 1978: 296, pl. 116: 14.
    1984 Martellia ichangensis Wang, 1956; Xu and Liu 1984: 196, pl. 12: 27-29, 31; text-fig. 12.
  • Taxon authority is treated as part of the name, not a citation. If the source publication needs to be cited then the taxonomic discussion has to be phrased appropriately, e.g., "... Pallas (1778) based (Lepus europaeus) on..." Consequently, we do not associate co-authors of the publication with the author of the taxon name. This is in agreement with ICZN: "If it is clear from the content of publication that only one of joint authors, or some other person, is alone responsible both for the name and for satisfying the criteria of availability other than publication, then the person is the author of the name."
  • Biostratigraphic zones. It is a general rule in English to capitalise all modifiers to the singular form of a proper noun (or compound noun). Following this rule APP capitalises both parts of a name (i.e., "Conodont Zone"). The International Stratigraphic Guide http://www.stratigraphy.org/guide.htm does not deal directly with the issue, although the recommendations about naming biozones give examples such as Exus albus Range Zone (with a capital R in Range) which are in some ways parallel to the problem of “Conodont Zone”. Thus Palmatolepis trachytera Conodont Zone is the most correct of the alternatives. Information about the higher taxonomic group in the biozone name can be excluded wherever this can be done without loss of important information.
The discussion should focus on the interpretation and significance of the findings. State the implications of the findings and their limitations, including possibilities for future research. Relate the observations to other relevant studies.

Please summarize your findings and explain the implications of your work in a short conclusions section. This chapter should not contain new data or findings but may provide recommendations for future work.

Authors' contributions (facultative). Providing authors' contributions is optional in APP.
Acknowledge contributions that do not justify authorship, technical help, and financial support. Provide the first names of all acknowledged persons, as well as their institutional affiliations (if applicable) and/or city and country names in parentheses.

Do not abbreviate journal names. Always give the names of editors of symposium volumes and edited books. Author, year, and article title are each separated by a period and single space. Capitalise first characters of titles of books and publications, but use lower case for titles of articles within publications. The original titles of publications in Latin alphabets are to be retained. Names of journals and titles of books in non-Latin alphabets should be transliterated (to facilitate library retrieval), while titles of individual papers should be translated into English (to help in understanding the contents). A note such as “[in Russian]” or “[in Chinese, with English abstract ]” should be added at the end of the reference. For examples of exact formatting of references, consult the bibliographies in recent APP papers.
Endnote and Procite users may download the output styles (PC platform) for Acta Palaeontologica Polonica here [EndNote] [Procite].

Use appendices for longer tables or listings such as specimens examined and locality information.

4. Tables and figures

Use space wisely in your tables and figures. Locality maps and stratigraphic sections should include essential information only. Extensive stratigraphic intervals beyond the fossil-bearing horizon or large-scale maps seldom convey useful information and should not be included.

Tables. Please submit the tables as Word or Excel files. Begin each table on a new page. Include table descriptions with the tables. Provide explanation of abbreviations used in the table. Begin the text of the table description without a space. Subsequent lines are indented four spaces.

  • Illustrations can be printed at two-column width (183 mm) or one-column width (89 mm), and should be designed accordingly. All illustrations are consecutively numbered as figures even if they use the full page size (183 × 236 mm). In the latter case captions have to be inserted at the bottom of the neighbouring page. Preferably, a figure should leave enough space on the same page to insert its caption. First sentence of the figure caption should summarise the main information presented in the figure. Figure captions of taxonomic papers should include authority name(s), date, age, and locality of the illustrated taxa.
  • Letters on figures (A, B, C, etc.) should run consecutively from left to right and from top to bottom. If more than one specimen is illustrated in a figure, label all views of the same specimen with the same letter with numerical subscripts (A1, A2, A3, etc.). Magnification should be indicated by a scale bar. Use full terms rather than abbreviations in labelling both line drawings and, if there is enough space, photographic illustrations. Font: we recommend Arial 8 pt., line thickness should be 0.2 mm, scale bars 0.7 mm, do not use „hairline” thickness. Line art images should be tightly cropped.
  • DRAWINGS: Drawings can be prepared in vector- (preferred) or bitmap-based programs). Please upload the computer files prepared in CorelDraw! (preferable; any version up to X3), Adobe Illustrator (any version up to CS5) or EPS formats, line art images scanned or saved in bitmap-based programs as TIFF format (black and white bitmap) at a resolution of 600–1200 dpi.
  • IMAGES: Photographs should have a black background, and margins of photographed objects must be clearly delineated. A white background is acceptable, provided that the lightest areas within the picture are not completely white. Stereo-photographs for objects with complicated anatomy are recommended, preferably accompanied by explanatory drawings with full terms. The items within a stereopair should be arranged side by side (not one under another), with a maximum distance of 65 mm apart.
  • Save photographic images in AI, PSD, CDR or TIFF (layered) format of resolution at least 400 dpi at final size, non-interpolated and not compressed at any stage (e.g., JPEG format).
  • Illustrations should be submitted either as editable files (CDR, AI, PSD, layered TIFF) with labelling on separate layer or as vector-based elements or in two versions: one with labeling, the other set should lack any labels (not insert letters, lines, arrows, symbols, etc.). Final lettering and symbols will be added by us, to insure consistency with APP style.
  • If you choose colour pdf and black and white figures in print, prepare separate figures ensuring proper quality (simple conversion to grey scale may lead to waste of readability)

5. Supplementary Online Material (SOM)

Supplementary Online Material should be submitted at the same time as the manuscript. Authors are welcome to submit animations, movie files, sound files or any additional information for online publication (the original files will be hosted on our server, a link will be provided in the SOM document). Please supply descriptions, captions, and references for all supplementary materials. If applicable combine Word, Excel, and Images into a pdf.

6. Review process

All manuscripts (except book reviews) are sent to at least two reviewers. While we do not encourage this, the reviewers may ask to remain anonymous.
Authors are asked to suggest between 3 and 5 potential reviewers (during electronic submission of the manuscript), whose expertise qualifies them to review the work and who are not in the conflict of interests with the authors. Any reviewers the authors wish to exclude may be named, along with the reason for exclusion.

While all suggestions will be considered, the final choice of reviewers as well as final decision on publication of the manuscript rests with the Editors.

7. Paper acceptance

After all the editorial work is completed, and revisions have been made by the author, the final version of the text as well as high resolution figures should be uploaded via our online submission system. Use only MS Word compatible word processors working in a Windows environment or convert text to RTF format (in which case, both converted and native format files should be sent). For the final version mark the approximate position of figures and tables close to the initial citation.

8. Proofs

The corresponding author will receive page proofs in the form of PDF file. Authors are requested to check proofs for typesetting/editing and return corrections to the editor as quickly as possible, preferably within 48 hours of receipt. Failure to return the proof promptly may delay publication. Only necessary corrections are permitted; the cost of excessive changes will be billed to the author. Authors are requested to make corrections directly on the PDF file.

9. Reprints

High quality pdf files (print ready) are available free of charge. The reprints are available, in multiples of 25, at the prices stated below (VAT not included).

Number of Pages 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Each add'l page
25 copies (EUR) 16 16 18,5 21 23,5 26 28,5 31 33,5 36 +2,5

Cost of Covers (optional): add EUR 47 for the first 25 covers; EUR 16 for each additional 25 covers.

Reprints are usually shipped about 45 to 60 days after the publication date (when ordering reprints, please provide detailed shipping address).

10. Copyright policy

If any illustration or table is reproduced from a book or journal article, the author must obtain copyright permission. A suitable acknowledgement of any borrowed material must always be made.

Acta Palaeontologica Polonica articles are distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
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